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Objective: To investigate the Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and ethanol extract of Psidium guajava.
Methods: The leaf of Psidium guajavabelongs to the myrtle family (Myrtacease) which is used as herbal remedies for the cure of many ailments by natives in northern part of Nigeria, was collected in June, 2018 from the Professor’s Quarters of Modibbo Adama University of Technology (MAUTECH) Yola. The leaf was air dried, pulverized and extracted by simple overnight maceration technique and then analyzed. Fresh leaf of the aforementioned was extracted using modified steam distillation. The phytochemical screening of the ethanol extract was carried out using standard method.
Results: The result revealed the present of Tannin, Flavanoid, Alkaloid, Volatile oil, Triterpene, Saponin, Glycoside while phenolic compound was absent in the ethanol extract of Psidium guajava. The result of the antioxidant activity of the essential oil was screened using DPPH method and the IC25 values of ascorbic acid (standard drug) was 57.92 µl/m and Psidium guajava of the essential oil was 46.55 µl/ml respectively. Antibacterial activity was carried out using dics diffusion method and the results showed reasonable zone of inhibition against tasted organisms, with Staphylococcus epidemidis being the most inhibited (23 mm) and Proteus vulgari being the least inhibited (2 mm) with the ethanol extract of Psidium guajava. In contrast, Staphylococcus aureus was the most inhibited (13 mm) and Salmonella typhi showed the least inhibition (9mm) in the essential oil of Psidium guajava.
Conclusion: The result, thus support the use of the plants traditionally to treat chronic diarrhea, fever, diabetes, malaria and suggest its usage in the formulation of new antioxidant and antibacterial drugs.
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