Batch Adsorption of Safranin Dye from an Aqueous Solution of Balanites aegyptiaca Seed Coats

Main Article Content

Buhari Magaji
Aisha U. Maigari
Usman A. Abubakar
Mukhtar M. Sani
Amina U. Maigari

Abstract

This study was aimed at using Balanite aegyptiaca seed coats activated carbon (BAAC) as a potential adsorbent to remove safranin dye from aqueous solution. BAAC was prepared from Balanite aegyptiaca seed coats using a one-step procedure with 67.27% yield, 3.23% ash content, 695 m2/g surface area and 203 mg/g iodine number. The FTIR spectroscopy revealed O-H, N-H, C-H, C=C, C-O-H stretching vibrations. The influences of agitation time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dose were studied in batch experiments at room temperature. The adsorptions were rapid at the first 15 minutes of agitation, with the uptake of 2.746 mg/kg. The adsorption equilibrium was achieved at 90 minutes of agitation. Kinetic studies showed good correlation coefficient for both pseudo-first order and pseudo-second-order kinetics model but fitted well into pseudo-second order kinetic model. The adsorption data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm with correlation coefficient (R2) very close to unity and Langmuir maximum adsorption constant, qm  1.00. Thus, the fitting into Langmuir indicates monolayer coverage on the adsorbents. The results showed that BAAC has the potential to be applied as alternative low-cost adsorbents in the remediation of dye contamination in wastewater.

Keywords:
Balanite aegyptiaca, activated carbon, adsorption isotherms, safranin dye, kinetics.

Article Details

How to Cite
Magaji, B., Maigari, A. U., Abubakar, U. A., Sani, M. M., & Maigari, A. U. (2020). Batch Adsorption of Safranin Dye from an Aqueous Solution of Balanites aegyptiaca Seed Coats. Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, 8(1), 48-54. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajopacs/2020/v8i130109
Section
Original Research Article

References

Norlia B, Kheng LL, Kamarudin H. Cyanide removal using commercially available resins. National Seminar on Recent Techniques in Mineral Processing, Wastes and Environmental Management (RETMEM), Bhubaneswar, India. 1999; 207-214.

Chothani Daya L, Vaghasiya HU. A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): Phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and pharmacological activity. Pharma-cognosy Reviews. 2011;5(9):55-62.

Abdus-Salam N, Buhari M. Adsorption of alizarin and fluorescein dyes on adsorbent prepared from mango seed. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;15(1):232-244.

Asiagwu AK, Owamah HI, Illoh VO. Kinetic and thermodynamic models for the removal of amino-phenol (dye) from aqueous solutions using groundnut (Arachis hypogea) shells as the biomass. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2012;3(4):2257-2265.

Sahu JN, Achrya J, Meikap BC. Optimization of production conditions for activated carbons from tamarind wood by zinc chloride using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology. 2010;101:1974-1982.

Faust SD, Aly OM. Chemistry of water treatment. Butterwoths Publishers: London, UK.1983;211.

Ekpete OA, Horsfall M Jnr. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon derived from fluted pumpkin stem waste (Telfaria Occidentalis Hook F). Res. J Chem. Sci. 2011;1(3):10-17.

ISSN: 2231-606X

Pradhananga Raja R, Shrestha Rajeshwar M, Yadav Amar P, Pokharel Bhadra P. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from lapsi (Choerospondias axillaris) seed stone by chemical activation with phosphoric acid. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences. 2012;2(10):80-86.

ISSN: 2231-606X

Raffiea BJ, Palanisamy PN, Sivakumar P. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from Thevetia peruviana for the removal of dyes from textile waste water. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2012;3(1):377-383.

Hesas RH, Arami-Niya A, Wan Daud WMA, Sahu JN. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from apple waste by microwave-assisted phosphoric acid activation: Application in methylene blue adsorption. Bio Resources. 2013;8(2):2950-2966.

Hameed BH, Din ATM, Ahmad AL. Adsorption of methylene blue onto bamboo-based activated carbon: Kinetics and equilibrium studies. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2007;141:819-825.

Jung M, Ahn K, Lee Y, Kim K, Rhee J, Park JT, Paeng K. Adsorption characteristics of phenol and chlorophenols on granular activated carbon (GAC). Microchemical Journal. 2001;70(2):123–131.

Depci T, Kul AR, Onal Y. Competitive adsorption of lead and zinc from aqueous solution on activated carbon prepared from van apple pulp: Study in single- and multi-solute systems. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2012;200:224-236.

Gulen J, Zorbay F. Methylene blue adsorption on a low cost adsorbent-carbonized peanut shell. Water Environment Research. 2017;89(9):805-816.

Gulen J, Iskeceli M. Removal of methylene blue by using porous carbon adsorbent prepared from carbonized chest nut shell. Materials Testing. 2017;59(2):188-194.

Naiya TK, Chowdhury P, Bhattacharya AK, Das SK. Saw dust and neem bark as low-cost natural biosorbent for adsorptive removal of Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2009;148:68–79.

Abdus-Salam N, Buhari M. Adsorption of alizarin and fluorecein dyes onto palm seeds activated carbon: Kinetic and thermodynamics studies. Journal of Chemical Society of Pakistan. 2016; 38(04):604-614.

Wilson LD, Zaccheus S, Buhari M, Yusuf SY, Davoud B. Thermodynamics and kinetics adsorption of phenol red on carbon-CUO nanocomposite. Journal of Global Ecology and Environment. 2019; 9(3):107–117.

Danmallam AA, Dabature WL, Pindiga NY, Magaji B, Aboki MA, Ibrahim D, Zanna UAS, Muktar MS. The kinetics of the adsorption process of Cr (VI) in aqueous solution using neem seed husk (Azadirachta indica) activated carbon. Physical Science International Journal. 2020;24(1):1-13.