Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil and Plant and Evaluation of Bioconcentration Factor at Loumbila Market Gardening Perimeters, Burkina Faso
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences,
Agricultural soil quality deterioration resulting from an increase in the level of heavy metals is becoming more and more pronounced, thus raising the question on the safety status of human health and the environment. Determination of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from Loumbila market gardening (Burkina Faso), and calculation of bioconcentration factor were undertaken. The heavy metals such as copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) were measured using an atomic absorption spectrometer, model PERKIN ELMER AANALYST 200.
In the soil where the pepper was grown, the concentration of chromium was 175 mg/kg, which is higher than the concentration limit which is 150 mg/kg. Also the concentrations of lead in the soils of onion (118 mg/kg), green bean (118 mg/kg), carrot (178 mg/kg) and pepper (135 mg/kg) were above the limit which is 100 mg/kg. The concentrations of chromium in Onion leaves (3.72 mg/kg), onions (4.65 mg/kg), lettuce (4.89 mg/kg), green beans (5.89 mg/kg) and bell peppers (3.56 mg/kg) were concentrations above the limit established by the FAO/WHO, which is 2.3 mg/Kg. The concentrations of lead in carrot, onion leaf, onion, lettuce, green bean and bell pepper were above the limit proposed by FAO/WHO.
The bioconcentration factors show that the onion leaf (0.731), onion (0.929), lettuce (0.876), green bean (0.987) and bell pepper (0.858) are the plants that accumulate zinc and the carrot (0.524) accumulates nickel. The bioaccumulation of the metals in the vegetable from Loumbila market gardening decreased in the order of onion > lettuce > green bean > bell pepper > onion leaves > carrot.
- Heavy metals
- bioconcentration factor
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