Improving Students’ Science Process Skills Using Argument-Driven-Inquiry (ADI) Laboratory Method

Joan M. Belga *

Faculty, College of Education, Iloilo State College of Fisheries, Tiwi, Barotac Nuevo, Iloilo, Philippines.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


This study aimed to determine the effects of the Argument-Driven-Inquiry (ADI) laboratory method on high school students’ science process skills. The study further investigated the method’s effect on students with different reasoning ability levels, namely the hypothetico-deductive, transitional, and empirical-inductive. A mixed method employing both quantitative and qualitative procedures for gathering data was employed. A quasi-experimental study using a 2 x 3 factorial design was implemented where Reasoning Ability Level was the moderating variable. The study was conducted on two intact classes of fourth-year students at Iloilo National High School-Special Science Class enrolled in the subject “College Physics”. Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning was utilized to categorize students according to their reasoning ability levels.  To measure students’ science process skills before and after the study, the Test for Integrated Process Skills II (TIPS II) was employed. Mean, standard deviations, t-test for independent samples, and one-way analysis of variance were determined as part of the statistical analyses. Results revealed that students in the two groups were comparable in terms of science process skills before the intervention was employed. However, exposure to the ADI laboratory method improved students’ science process skills better than exposure to the traditional laboratory method. Further, the improvement of students’ science process skills is deemed independent of the student’s reasoning ability level but relies mainly on the type of laboratory instruction.

Keywords: ADI, science process skills, reasoning ability level, TIPS II, laboratory method, concept cartoons, scientific argumentation

How to Cite

Belga, J. M. (2022). Improving Students’ Science Process Skills Using Argument-Driven-Inquiry (ADI) Laboratory Method. Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, 10(2), 42–49.


Watson J, Swain J, McRobbie C. Students’ discussions in practical scientific inquiries. International Journal of Science Education. 2004;26(1):25-45.

National Research Council (NRC). America’s lab report: Investigations in high school science. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science; 2005. Committee on High School Laboratories: Role and Vision; 2006.


Department of Education (2016). K to 12 curriculum guide science – version as of August; 2016.

Tippett C. Argumentation: The language of science. Journal of Elementary Science Education. 2009;21(1):17-25.

Luneta, Hofstein, Clough. Learning and teaching in school science laboratories: An analysis of research, theory and practice. In Abel S, Lederman N. Handbook of Research in Science Education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 2007;393-434.

Sampson V, Grooms J, Walker J. Argument-driven inquiry. Science Teacher. 2009;76(8):42-47.

Burns JC, Okey J, C, Wise KC. Development of an integrated process skill test: TIPS II. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 1985;22(2):169-177.

Keogh B, Naylor S. Concept cartoons, teaching and learning in science: An evaluation. International Journal of Science Education. 1999;21:431-446.

Walker J, Sampson V, Grooms J, Anderson B, Zimmerman C. Argument-driven inquiry: An instructional model for use in undergraduate chemistry labs. Paper presented at the 2010 Annual International Conference of the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST). Philadelphia, PA; 2010.

Basaga H, Geban O, Tekkaya C. The effect of the inquiry teaching method in biochemistry and science process skill achievements. Biochemical Education. 1994;22:29-32.

Brickman P, Gormally C, Armstrong N, Hallar B. Effects of inquiry-based learning on students’ science literacy skills and confidence. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. 2009;3.

Ergül R, Simsekli Y, Calis S, Özdilek Z, Göçmençelebi S, Sanli M.The effects of inquiry-based science teaching on elementary school students’ science process skills and science attitudes. Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy (BJSEP). 2011;5(1): 48-68.

Lati W, Supasorn S, Promarak V. Enhancement of learning achievement and integrated science process skills using science inquiry learning activities of chemical reaction rates. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2012;46: 4471-4475.

Myers M, Burgess A. Inquiry-based laboratory course improves students’ ability to design experiments and interpret data. Adv Physiol Educ. 2003; 27:26-33.

Demircioglu T, Ucar S. Investigating the effect of argument-driven inquiry in laboratory instruction. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice. 2015;15 (1):267-283.

Siahaan A, Lialisari, Hernani. Effectiveness of argument-driven inquiry model on student' generic science skills and concept mastery. Journal of Physics. 2019; 1233.