Age-dependent Radiological Risk Assessment of Radon (222Rn) in Samples of Commercial Bottled Water from Benin City, Nigeria

Felix A. Popoola *

Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Glorious Vision University, P.M.B. 001, Ogwa, Edo State, Nigeria.

Osahon O. David

Department of Physics, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Ugbowo, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

Sheu I. Owoyemi

Department of Integrated Science, Adeyemi Federal University of Education, P.M.B. 520, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Modupe E. Sanyaolu

Department of Physical Sciences, Redeemer’s University, P.M.B. 230, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.

Isaac O. Elijah

Department of Works and Physical Planning, Glorious Vision University, P. M. B. 001, Ogwa, Edo State, Nigeria.

Iko A. Simon

Department of Physics with Electronics, Karl Kumm University, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Radon inhalation as well as ingestion through the use of water has a high potential of causing serious harm to sensitive cells and organs of the body when absorbed into the bloodstream. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the radiological health damage caused by radon in drinking bottled water available in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Radon concentration was measured using a RAD7 electronic radon detector. The mean activity concentration radon is 137.18 ± 0.25 mBq/L. This mean value is slightly higher than 0.1 Bq/L recommended by the Standard Organisation of Nigeria but lower than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 11.1 Bq/L set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and 100 Bq/L set by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for consumption of radon in drinking water. The mean total annual effective dose is 1.07±1.91 (\(\mu\)Sv/y) for infants, 0.61±1.09 (\(\mu\)Sv/y) for children, and 0.70±1.24 (\(\mu\)Sv/y) for adults. The computed annual effective dose to the public by inhalation and ingestion radon through the use of bottled water in the study areas are lower than the 0.1 mSv/y limit recommended by WHO. The estimated average for the age group excess lifetime cancer risk are 3.21 ± 5.71, 1.836 ± 3.26, 2.086 ± 3.71 (x 10-6) for infants, children and adults respectively. These values are below the world average permissible levels. Hence, consumption of the water examined poses no serious health risk to consumers.

Keywords: Bottled water, radon (222Rn), Benin City, cancer risk, effective dose, RAD7 detector

How to Cite

Popoola, F. A., David , O. O., Owoyemi , S. I., Sanyaolu , M. E., Elijah, I. O., & Simon , I. A. (2023). Age-dependent Radiological Risk Assessment of Radon (222Rn) in Samples of Commercial Bottled Water from Benin City, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, 11(4), 12–19.


Jain B, Singh AK. The world around bottled water. In: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu AMH (Ed.). Bottled and Packaged Water. Botttled and Packaged Water. 2019:39–61 Available:

Oni EA, Adagunodo TA, Adegbite AA, Omeje M. Determination of radon gas in bottled and sachet water in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci. 2021; 655:012092.

National Research Council Risk Assessment of Radon in Drinking Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 1999.

Kamba AM, Okunade IO. Radon measurement in commercial borehole water from some selected areas of Kaduna metropolis using Liquid Scintillation Counter. Int J Math Phys Sci Res. 2016; 3(2):71–81.

Abba HT, Umaru D. Evaluation of radon concentration and annual effective dose in sachet drinking water in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. Dutse J Pure Appl Sci. 2020;6(2):85–94.

Yong J, Feng G, Liu Q, Tang C, Wu B, Hu Y, et al. Radon concentration measurement and effective dose assessment in different brands of commercial bottled water produced in China. Water Sci Technol Water Supply. 2020;20(5):1581–91.

Al Mahmud J, Siraz MMM, Alam MS, Das SC, Bradley DA, Khandaker MU, et al. A study into the long-overlooked carcinogenic radon in bottled water and deep well water in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Int J Environ Anal Chem. 2023;1–13.


Kadhim NA, Mdekil ASI, Abbas HH, Abojassim AA. Age-dependent health risk assessment for Radon concentrations from drinking water available in the Iraqi markets. Egypt J Chem. 2021;64(4):1889–95.

Baraya TJ, Sani MH, Joshua J. Measurement of radon-222 concentration levels in brands of sachet drinking-water produce in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area ( LGA ) of Katsina State , Nigeria. J Asian Sci Res. 2020;10(1):33–42.

Benin City Population. Accessed on 4/21/2022.

Available:, 2022.

Erah P, Akujieze C and Oteze G. The Quality of Groundwater in Benin City: A baseline study on inorganic chemicals and microbial contaminants of health importance in boreholes and open wells. Trop.l J. Pharmac. Res. 2002;1(2):75.

Osahon OD, Popoola FA, Igumbor E, Achurefe ME. Radon activity concentration in water samples around a tourmaline mining site in Budo-Are, Oyo State, Nigeria. J Sci Eng Technol. 2018;65–70.

Durridge. RAD H2O user maual. Durridge Company Inc. 2020:1–33.

Oni OM, Oladapo OO, Amuda DB, Oni EA, Olive-adelodun AO, Adewale KY, et al. Radon Concentration in Groundwater of Areas of High Background Radiation Level in Southwestern Nigeria. 2014;(June):64–7.

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Sources and effects of ionizing radiation (report to the general assembly, United Nations, New York); 2000.

Oni EA, Oni OM, Oladapo OO, Olatunde ID, Adediwura FE. Measurement of Radon Concentration in Drinking Water of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. J Acad Ind Res. 2016;4(8): 190–2.

Sukanya S, Joseph S, Noble J. Evaluation of radiation dose from radon ingestion and inhalation in groundwater of a small tropical river basin, Kerala, India. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2021;57(2):204–15. DOI:

Opoku-Ntim I, Andam AB, Akiti TT, Flectcher JJ, Roca V. Annual effective dose of radon in groundwater samples for different age groups in Obuasi and Offinso in the Ashanti region, Ghana. Environ Res Commun. 2019;1:105002.

Orosun MM, Ajibola BT, Ehinlafa EO, Issah AK, Salawu BN, Ishaya SD, Ochommadu KK and Adewuyi AD. Annual effective dose assessment of radon in drinking water from abandoned tin and cassiterite mining site in Oyun, Kwara State, Nigeria. Poll. 2022;8(1):181–192.

Dankawu UM, Shuaibu HY, Maharaz MN, Zangina T, Lariski FM, Ahmadu M, et al. Estimation of excess life cancer risk and annual effective dose for boreholes and well water in Dutse, Jigawa State Nigeria. Dutse J Pure Appl Sci. 2022;7(4a):209–18.

ICRP. The Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Publication 103. Ann. 2007; 37;2-4.

World Health Organization (WHO). WHO statistical profile. Country Statistics and Global Health Estimates by WHO and UN Partners Global Health Observatory World Health Organization; 2015.

SON Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Standard Organisation of Nigeria. Nigeria Industrial Standard, NIS-554 2015;20.

United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Cancer Risk Coefficients for environmental exposure to radionuclides. 1999;13:1–335.

World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for drinking water quality 1st Ed. World Health Organization Geneva. 2011;465. ISBN-10: 9241541687

Seid AMA, Turhan Ş, Kurnaz A, Bakır TK, Hançerlioğulları A. Radon concentration of different brands of bottled natural mineral water commercially sold in Turkey and radiological risk assessment. Int J Environ Anal Chem. 2020;1–13. DOI:

World Health Organization (WHO). Indoor Radon a Public Health Perspective. 2009; 110.

ICRP. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Protection of the Public in situations of prolonged radiation exposure. Publication 82. Ann. 2000;29:1-2.

Avwiri GO, Ononugbo CP and Nwokeoji IE. Radiation hazard indices and excess lifetime cancer risk in soil, sediment and water around Mini-Okoro/Oginigba Creek, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Comprehen. J. of Environm. and Earth Sci. 2014;3(1):38–50.