Assessment of Heavy Metal Levels in Offal Meats (Kidney and Liver) of Beef Sold at Gwagwalada Market, Abuja, Nigeria
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences,
Aims: To determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) in kidney and liver of slaughtered cattle.
Study Design: Analytical method.
Place and Duration of Study: Samples obtained from Gwagwalada abattoir in Abuja, Nigeria and transported University of Abuja, Chemistry Laboratory for analysis. The study lasted for four (4) months.
Methodology: Wet digestion of samples followed by metal analysis using Accusys 211 Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS).
Results: The empirical results indicated that the mean levels or concentration of these heavy metals in kidney of cattle were 47.75±0.002 mg/g Zn, 279.5±0.084 mg/g Fe, 10.00±0.00mg/g Mn, while Cd and Pb were not detected. The levels or concentration of heavy metals in the liver sample were 0.500=±0.000025 mg/g Cd, 57.00±0.0001 mg/g Zn, 119.5±0.0016 mg/g Fe, 5.75±0.000025 mg/g Mn, Pb was not detected. The concentration of Fe and Mn were found to be high in kidney sample than the liver sample.
Conclusion: The evidence from this study revealed the safety of these investigated offal meats as the concentration of these metals in the kidney and liver sample were within the maximum permissible limit according to the European Commission (EC) and FAO/WHO standards.
- heavy metals
How to Cite
(Accessed on 05 April 2019)
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Meat & Meat Products –Meat Consumption.
(Retrieved 25 November 2014)
Pereira PMC, Vicente AFR. Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet. Meat Science. 2013;93(3): 586-592.
Cordain L, Eaton SB, Miller JB, Mann N, Hill K. The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: Meat-based, yet non-atherogenic. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;56(S1):S42.
Park YW, Washington AC. Fatty acid composition of goat organ and muscle meat of alpine and Nubian breeds. Journal of Food Science. 1993;58:245-248.
Nicklas TA, Drewnowski A, O’Neil CE. The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: Challenges and opportunities. Public Health Nutr. 2014;1-11.
David Jockers. The many health benefits of eating organ meats.
[Retrieved May 10 2016]
The United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27.
[Accessed on September 29th, 2018]
Ling; Fish, Coked, dry heat: 9
[Accessed on September 29th, 2018]
Alrnoid Bender: Meat and meat products in human nutrition in developing countries. Food and Nutrition Paper 53, Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations Rome; 1992.
Available:http://www.fao.org/docrep/T0562E/T0562E00.HTM retrieved 04/11/1992
Phillips RL, Snowdon DA, Brin BH. Cancer in vegetarians. In "Environmental Aspects of Cancer. The role of the macro and micro components of foods". Ed Wynder EL, Leveille GA, Weisburger JH, Livingston GE. Food and Nutrition Press, Westport, CT; 1983.
Kritchevsky D. Meat and Cancer. In Pearson and Dutson. 1990;89-104.
Kabata-Pendias, Pendias H. Trace metals in soils and plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2nd edition; 2001.
Pierzynski GM, Sims JT, Vance GF. Soils and environmental quality. CRC Press, London, UK, 2nd edition; 2000.
D'Amore JJ, Al-Abed SR, Scheckel KG, Ryan JA. Methods for speciation of metals in soils: A review. Journal of Environmental Quality. View at Publisher. View at Google Scholar. View at PubMed. View at Scopus. 2005;34(5):1707–1745.
Raven PH, Berg LR, Johnson GB. Environment, Saunders College Publishing, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition; 1998.
Smith LA, Means J, Chen LA, et al. Remedial options for metals-contaminated sites. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Fla, USA; 1995.
USEPA, Report: Recent Developments for In Situ Treatment of Metals contaminated Soils, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response; 1996.
United States Department of Labour: Occupational Safety & Health Administration; 2014.
Santhi D, Balakrishnan Balakrishnan V, Kalaikannan A, Radhakrishnan KT. Presence of heavy metals in pork products in Chennai (India), American Journal of Food Technology. 2008;3:192-199.
[Accessed 16 March 2019]
AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 16th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC; 1995.
Udoh EJ, Akintola JO. An analysis of beef demand in a Nigerian urban city. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2002;9(1):7-12.
Ozdamar K. Biostatistics with SPSS. Kann Press Eskisehir. 1991;2-23.
Codex Alimentarius Commission. Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme. Codex Committee on Methods of analysis and sampling, twenty-eighthsession, Budapest, Hungary; 2007.
Commission of the European Communities. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 466/ 2001 of 8 March 2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Communities,L77. 2001;1–13.
Pompe-Gotal J, Crnic AP. Cadmium in tissue of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Croatia. Vet. Arhiv. 2002;72:303-310.
Peterson PJ, Alloway BJ. Cadmium in soils and vegetation. In: The Chemistry, Biochemstry and Biology of Cadmium. (Webb. M., Ed.), Elsevier, North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, New York, Oxford 1974. 1979;45-92.
Akan JC, Abdulrahman FI, Sodipo OA, Chiroma YA. Distribution of heavy metalls in the liver, kidney and meat of beef, mutton, caprine and chicken from Kasuwan Shan Market in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 2010;2(8):743-748.
Iwegbue CMA. Heavy metal composition of livers and kidneys of cattle from sourthern Nigeria. Vet. Arhiv. Veterinarski Arhiv. 2008;78(5):401-410.
Sedki N, Lekouch S. Gamon, Pineau A. Sci. Total Environ. 2003;317:201–205.
Ambushe A, Mokgadi A, Hlongwane M, Robert I. McCrindle, Cheryl M. E. McCrindle. Assessment of levels of V, Cr, Mn, Sr, Cd, Pb and U in bovine meat: S. Afr. J. Chem. 2012;65:159-154.
Beata Korenekova, Magdalena Skalicka, Pavel Nad. Cncentration of some heavy metals in cattle reared in the vicinity of a metallurgic industry: Veterinarski Archiv. 2002;72(5):259-267.
[ANR] Austin Nutritional Research. Reference guide for minerals; 2003.
[NAS] National Academy of Sciences. 2001. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Davidsson L, Cederblad A, Hagebo E, et al. Intrinsic and extrinsic labeling for studies of manganese absorption in humans. J Nutr. 1988;118: 1517–1524.
Cited in: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for manganese. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2000.
[EPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Health assessment document for manganese. Final draft. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. EPA-600/8-83-013F. Cited in: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2000. Toxicological profile for manganese. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1984.
[NRC] National Research Council. Recommended dietary allowances. 10th edition. Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Cited in: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System. Manganese (CASRN 7439-96-5). 1989; 230–235.
[WHO] World Health Organization. Trace elements in human nutrition: Manganese. Report of a WHO expert committee. Geneva, Switzerland: Technical Report Service, 532, WHO. p. 34–36. Cited in: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated risk information system. Manganese (CASRN). 1973;7439:96-5.
Bartik M, Piscac A. A veterinary toxicology. Elsevier, New York; 1981.
Salisbury CDC, Chan W. Multielement concentrations in liver and kidney tissues from live species of Canadian slaughetred animals. Journal of the Association of Analytical Chemistry. 1991;74:587-591.
ATSDR. Agency for toxic substances and diseases registry, Division of Toxicology. Clifon Road, NE, Atlanta, GA; 2004.
ANZFA (Australia New Zealand Food Authority). Wellington NZ 6036; 2001.
Meat Consumption: Animal Production and Health. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
[Retrieved May 2016]
Abstract View: 1848 times
PDF Download: 877 times