Application of GIS in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality in the Yenagoa Watershed of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences,
The spatial variations in groundwater quality in parts of the Yenagoa watershed (YWS) in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has been investigated using Geographic Information System (GIS). An understanding of the factors responsible for groundwater vulnerability could facilitate the use of geographic information system in the control and management of groundwater quality. This study is due to the fact that the spatial distribution maps of groundwater quality in the YWS obtained by GIS modeling are not documented. The quality of groundwater accounts for the environmental and human health status of the residents in the YWS. Therefore, twenty (20) water samples obtained from shallow boreholes were analyzed for physicochemical properties. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, sulphate, nitrate, sodium, chloride, magnesium, total hardness and iron contents were measured using standard laboratory procedure. Except for the iron content, the results obtained from the physicochemical analyses were within limits of the World Health Organization Standards for drinking water. These results were transformed into spatial distribution maps using GIS modeling and interpretation. The Index Overlay method and Inverse Distance weighted method form component parts of the GIS modeling used in the generation of the spatial distribution maps for each physicochemical parameter. These modeled results were related to the World Health Organization (WHO) Standard for drinking water. The maps generated from GIS modeling indicated zones that were suitable for groundwater extraction as opposed to zones unsuitable for groundwater extraction. In conclusion, 55% of the boreholes in the Yenagoa watershed were affected by high iron content.
- geographic information system
- inverse distance weighted
- physico-chemical parameters
- Yenagoa watershed
- Niger delta region.
How to Cite
Adelana SMA, Olasehinde PI, Bale RB, Edet AE, Goni IB. An overview of the geology and hydrogeology of Nigeria, Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa. 2008;171-197.
Arulbalaji P, Padmalal D, Sreelash K. GIS and AHP techniques based delineation of groundwater potential zones: A case study from Southern Western Ghats, India. Scientific Reports. 2019;9(1):2082.
Tsihrintzis VA, Hamid R, Fuentes HR. Use of geographic information systems (Gis) in water resources: A review. Water Resources Management. 1996;10:251-277.
Oki AO, Eteh DR. Spatial groundwater quality assessment by WQI and GIS in Ogbia LGA of Bayelsa State, Nigeria, Asian J. Physical and Chemical Sciences. 2018;4:1-12.
Burrough PA, McDonnell RA, Lloyd CD. Principles of Geographical information systems oxford: Oxford University Press. 2015;352.
Mukate S, Wagh V, Panaskar D, Jacobs JA, Sawant A. Development of new integrated water quality index (IWQI) model to evaluate the drinking suitability of water, Ecological Indicators. 2019;101: 348-354.
Wan Mohtar WHM, Abdul Maulud KN, Muhammad NS, Sharil S, Yaseen ZM. Spatial and temporal risk quotient-based river assessment for water resources management. Environmental Pollution. 2019;248:133-144.
Li Y, Wang F, Feng J, Qu WY, Xie SL. Long term spatial-temporal dynamics of fluoride in sources of drinking water and associated health risks in a semiarid region of Northern China, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2019;171:274- 280.
Nwankwoala HO, Amadi AN, Oborie E, Ushie FA. Hydrochemical factors and correlation analysis of groundwater quality in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Applied Ecology and Environmental Services. 2014;2(4):100–105.
WHO (World Health Organization). Guidelines for drinking water. In: Misstear B, Banks D, Clark L, (eds.). Water wells and boreholes. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2017;467-472.
Nwankwola HO, Udom GJ. Hydro-geochemical evaluation of groundwater in parts of Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Academic and Applied Studies. 2011;1:33-58.
Jasrotia AS, Taloor AK, Andotra U, Kumar R. Monitoring and assessment of groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural use in the Cenozoic rocks of Jammu Himalaya, India: A geospatial technology based approach, Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2019;8:554-566
Okiongbo KS, Douglas R. Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in Yenagoa City and environs, Southern Nigeria. Ife Journal of Science. 2013;14(2):209–222.
Oki OA, Ombu R. Implications of seasonal variation on groundwater quality in Yenagoa, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics. 2017; 5(3):60–66.
Udom GJ. Quality status of groundwater in Yenagoa and its environs, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. J. Sci. Ind. Stud. 2006;4(1):45- 51.
Reyment RA. Ammonitologist sensulatissimo and founder of cretaceous research Bengtson, P. Cretaceous Research-1926-2016. 2018;88:5-35.
Etu–Efeotor JO. Fundamentals of petroleum geology. Paragraphic publications, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 1997;135.
Chukwu GA. The Niger delta complex basin: Stratigraphy, structure and hydrocarbon potential. Journal of Petroleum Geology. 1991;14211-220.
Adewoye O, Amigun JO, Afuwai CG. Lithostratigraphic interpretation and seismic attributes analysis for reservoir characterization in some parts of Niger delta. Petroleum and Coal. 2015;57(1):76-84.
Egirani DE, Wessey N. Study of water resources in parts of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: paper II, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Research. 2015;3(4):67-82.
American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 23rd Edition. 2017;1504.
Rangzan KCA. Remote sensing and GIS approach for water-well site selection, Southwest Iran. Environ. Eng. Geoscience. 2008;315–326.
Mageshkumar P, Subbaiyan A, Lakshmanan E, Thirumoorthy P. Application of geospatial techniques in delineating groundwater potential zones: A case study from South India, Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 2019;12(5):151.
Rossetto R, De Filippis G, Borsi I, Criollo R, Vázquez-Suñé E. Integrating free and open source tools and distributed modelling codes in GIS environment for data-based groundwater management. Environmental Modelling and Software. 2018;107:210-230.
Abstract View: 1720 times
PDF Download: 1154 times