About the Origin of the Dark Energy and the Zero Mass/Energy Universe

Main Article Content

Guenter Frohberg

Abstract

Based on the Gravito-Electro-Magnetic (GEM) equations as another form (for low fields) of Einstein's Equations of General Relativity Theory (GRT) an equation is derived for the total energy density in the universe, including the gravitational fields, the contribution thereof is always negative and so it seems to represents the Dark Energy (DE).  When calculating the total energy of the universe from this equation, the result is near to zero because of negative contributions from gravitational fields, depending a little on the available parameters of the universe as e.g. it's baryonic mass. Thus the assumption is given a high amount of probability, that the total energy (mass) in the universe is really zero and very likely is always zero. This  would mean, that the universe developed from empty space-time or from nothing (may be by quantum fluctuations). Looking on the development it could be  that the average energy density is zero for each sufficient large part of the universe at any time, except for very local deviations (e.g. galaxies, black holes etc.). As a consequence the expansion of the universe is probably not retarded by gravity (thus the Friedmann equation and others do not apply). The expansion of the universe can be considered as driven by the pressure of a gas-like medium with positive masses as by intergalactic gas, dust, stars and galaxies. Conclusions are drawn as to the interpretation of the formation of voids in the universe, flat space etc.

Keywords:
Cosmology, energy-mass density, total energy of the universe, growth of the universe, gravito-electromagnetic fields, corrections to Newton’s law

Article Details

How to Cite
Frohberg, G. (2021). About the Origin of the Dark Energy and the Zero Mass/Energy Universe. Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, 9(2), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajopacs/2021/v9i230131
Section
Original Research Article

References

Recent articles on Dark Energty . Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2020.101542 , https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219887821500262, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10773-017-3417-4, https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9840351, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.021102

Mashhoon B.: Gravitoelectromagnetism, a Brief Review; 2003. arXiv:gr-qc/0311030 [gr-qc] (see also www.WIKIPEDIA/Gravitoelectromagnetism)

Schwarzschild, Karl. Über das Gravitationsfeld eines Massenpunktes nach der Einsteinschen Theorie in Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akadewmie deer Wissenschaften. 1916;1:189-196. (auch : “Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker-Metrik”, www.WIKIPEDIA) See e.g. Astrowissen, Keller HU, Frank-Kosmos Verlag; 2003.

e.g. Landau LD, Lifschitz EM. Lehrbuch der theoreischen physik, Bd.VIIi, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin; 1974.

Börner G. Die Dunkle Energie in : Geheimnisvoller Kosmos, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim; 2009.

Nordström, Gunnar: On the energy of the gravitation field in einstein’s theory, Proc. Royal Acad. Amsterdam. 1918;XX:1238-1245.

Milgrom,Mordehai. Dynamics with a non-standard inertia-acceleration : An alternative to dark matter, Ann. Phys. 1994;229:384-415. (see also www.WIKIPEDIA /"MOND")

Bartelmann M. Die dunkle Seite des Kosmos in Geheimnisvoller Kosmos, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim; 2009.

Krauss LM. A Universe from Nothing, Free Press, Simon and Schuster, New York; 2012. Riess AG et al., Astron J;1998;116: 1009. Perlmutter S et al. Nature. 1998;391: 51.

Francis MJ, Lewis GF, Linder EV. Can early dark energy be detected in non-linear structure?. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2009;394(2):605- 14.