Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences 2021-05-12T08:24:15+00:00 Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences (ISSN: 2456-7779)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJOPACS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of Physics, Chemistry and Earth Sciences. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> About the Origin of the Dark Energy and the Zero Mass/Energy Universe 2021-05-12T08:24:15+00:00 Guenter Frohberg <p>Based on the Gravito-Electro-Magnetic (GEM) equations as another form (for low fields) of Einstein's Equations of General Relativity Theory (GRT) an equation is derived for the total energy density in the universe, including the gravitational fields, the contribution thereof is always negative and so it seems to represents the Dark Energy (DE).&nbsp; When calculating the total energy of the universe from this equation, the result is near to zero because of negative contributions from gravitational fields, depending a little on the available parameters of the universe as e.g. it's baryonic mass. Thus the assumption is given a high amount of probability, that the total energy (mass) in the universe is really zero and very likely is always zero. This&nbsp; would mean, that the universe developed from empty space-time or from nothing (may be by quantum fluctuations). Looking on the development it could be&nbsp; that the average energy density is zero for each sufficient large part of the universe at any time, except for very local deviations (e.g. galaxies, black holes etc.). As a consequence the expansion of the universe is probably not retarded by gravity (thus the Friedmann equation and others do not apply). The expansion of the universe can be considered as driven by the pressure of a gas-like medium with positive masses as by intergalactic gas, dust, stars and galaxies. Conclusions are drawn as to the interpretation of the formation of voids in the universe, flat space etc.</p> 2021-04-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review of Oilfield Chemicals Used in Oil and Gas Industry 2021-05-12T08:24:14+00:00 M. Chukunedum Onojake T. Angela Waka <p>The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transportation and marketing of natural gas, crude oil and refined petroleum products. The oil industry demands more sophisticated methods for the exploitation of petroleum. As a result, the use of oil field chemicals is becoming increasingly important and has received much attention in recent years due to the vast role they play in the recovery of hydrocarbons which has enormous&nbsp; commercial benefits. The three main sectors of the petroleum industry are Upstream, Midstream and Downstream. The Upstream deals with exploration and the subsequent production (drilling of exploration wells to recover oil and gas). In the Midstream sector, petroleum produced is transported through pipelines as natural gas, crude oil, and natural gas liquids. Downstream sector is basically involved in the processing of the raw materials obtained from the Upstream sector. The operations comprises of refining of crude oil, processing and purifying of natural gas. Oil field chemicals offers exceptional applications in these sectors with wide range of applications in operations such as improved oil recovery, drilling optimization, corrosion protection, mud loss prevention, drilling fluid stabilization in high pressure and high temperature environment, and many others. Application of a wide range of oilfield chemicals is therefore essential to rectify issues and concerns which may arise from oil and gas operational activities. This review intends to highlight some of the oil field chemicals and&nbsp; their positive applications in the oil and gas Industries.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##