Open Access Original Research Article

Reason for Higher Rate of Gas Flow per Unit Cross-Sectional Area of Smaller Pore Aperture

Ikechukwu I. Udema

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJOPACS/2018/41975

Objectives: The objectives of this research are to 1) Formulate equation that shows the effect of pore aperture (or confinement) on not just the mass movement of molecules but the movement of individual molecules and 2) elucidate the derived equation and illustrate with diameter of pipes or tubes in literature.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Research Division, Ude International Concepts LTD (862217), B. B. Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria; Owa Alizomor Secondary School, Owa Alizomor, Ika North East, Delta State, Nigeria. The research started between 2011 and 2013 and discontinued until March, 2018.

Methods: Theoretical and calculational.

Results: The results reaffirm that higher volume of gas flows through pore aperture of longer diameter than the shorter diameter. The same is applicable to longer tubes. The velocity of flow (volume of gas diffusing per cross-sectional area of pore aperture per unit time) is higher for shorter diameter of pore aperture than the longer diameter of pore aperture. The converse is the case for the entropy implicit in the flow of gas through pores of different diameter.

Conclusion: The “reduced velocity” is inversely proportional to the cube root of the diameter of the pore. The entropic value arising from the effect of diameter is directly proportional to natural logarithm of the square of half of the diameter. If the diameter of the pore is equal to the dB wavelength the gas molecule may continue its motion at a root mean square velocity.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Indoor and Outdoor Radon of Different Residential Buildings and Its Exposure Risks

C. P. Ononugbo, B. Osiga

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJOPACS/2018/42334

Measurement of indoor and outdoor radon concentration in five different types of residential buildings were done using two Corentium Radon detector of model type; BQM-Digital Radon detector. It was done simultaneously and the readings taken after 24 hours for five days in a particular residential building. The average indoor radon concentration measured   varies from 2.15± 3.14 to 29.60±0.76 Bqm-3 respectively while the average outdoor radon concentration levels measured for five days in five different residential buildings range from 0.96±0.50 to 10.80±5.87 Bqm-3. The progeny of indoor radon varied from 0.2 x 10-3 WL to 3.2 x 10-3 WL while that for outdoor varied from 0.20x 10-3 to 1.8 x 10-3 WL. The mean indoor concentration of radon was considered less than the prescribed lower levels of 100 Bqm-3.  The annual effective dose to lungs (HEL) and whole body (HEW) calculated from the indoor radon concentration varied from 0.384 to 5.24 mSvy-1 and 0.13 to 1.79 mSvy-1 respectively.  Annual effective dose to the lungs and whole body are relatively within the recommended lower limit of 1.0 mSvy-1. Though the unplastered block house and mud house recorded relatively high radon concentration and other health risk parameters, the occupants of all the studied buildings are safe, since there will be no immediate health risk but prolonged stay might be detrimental to their health. The paper therefore recommended safety tips that will help reduce radon concentration in such houses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Degradation of Dyestuffs from Industrial Effluents using an Ultrasonic Bath in the Presence and Absence of Various Inorganic Salts and H2O2

Md. Monjurul Islam, Md. Ashifuzzaman, Md. Shamim Reza, Jerin Alauddin, Sumon Ganguly, B. M. Saifur Rahman, Most. Shahida Khatun, Md. Rashidul Islam, Md. Jahangir Hossain, Md. Helal Uddin

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJOPACS/2018/42490

Textile industries consume various dyestuffs for dyeing of fabrics. These dyestuffs are often present in industrial wastewater, have a serious impact on the environment and personal health. This report describes a system developed to degrade the dyestuffs using sonochemical reactions. The degradation of dye molecules in aqueous solution was investigated using 50-60 Hz ultrasonic bath, and all solutions volumes were 50 mL where the concentration of dye solution was 50 mg/L. Experiments were performed at an initial concentration of two types of dye solutions, i.e. Methylene Blue (MB) and Methyl Orange (MO) in absence and presence of inorganic salts (NaCl, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, NaNO3) and catalyst, i.e. H2O2 at room temperature. This research investigated the degradation of dye molecules with an aim of cost-effective method. In sonochemical degradation of dyestuffs in sonicator, high degradation rate for MB was obtained in the presence of additives H2O2 and followed the order: MB+H2O2> MB+ Na2CO3 > MB+Na2SO4> MB + NaCl> MB (0 mM salt & additive) > MB+NaNO3. Whereas, in case of MO, high rate was obtained in the presence of Na2SO4 and then followed the order: MO+Na2SO4> MO + NaNO3> MO+H2O2> MO + NaCl> MO (0 mM salt & additive) > MO+Na2CO3.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Radiation Risks Associated with Radon within Residential Buildings in Okrika, Rivers State, Nigeria

Sokari, Sylvester Akinabie

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJOPACS/2018/43400

The presence of high indoor radon concentration in residential buildings is a major concern of the public worldwide. Measurements of the indoor radon concentration in some selected residential buildings made of different building materials within Okrika local Government Area, in Rives State, Nigeria, was carried out using a Corentium Digital Radon Detector. The maximum mean value of the indoor radon concentration recorded was 19.36 ± 2.26 Bq/m3 for mud houses, and minimum mean value of 09.35±0.78 Bq/m3 for houses made of cemented solid blocks and floored with ceramic tiles, with an overall mean of 11.70 ± 3.28 Bq/m3. This value is below the range of limit of 200 and 600 Bq/m3 recommended by ICRP for residential buildings. Values of the computed annual absorbed dose rate varied from 0.24 ± 0.01 to 0.49 ± 0.03mSvy1, with an overall mean of 0.30 ± 0.08 mSvy-1. This value is lower than the recommended ICRP intervention limit of between (3-10) mSvy-1. The computed annual equivalent dose rate ranged from 0.58 ± 0.02 to 1.17 ± 0.08 mSvy-1, with an overall mean of 0.71 ± 0.20 mSvy-1. This value is lower than the maximum permissible limit of 1 mSvy-1 recommended by ICRP. The computed excess life cancer risk ranged from 2.0 ± 0.07 E - 3 to 4.1 ± 0.28 E - 3, with an overall mean of 2.5 ± 0.07. This value is higher than the world average of 0.29 x10-3. The results of this research have shown that the radiological health risks of the inhabitants living in mud houses are higher compared to those living in other types of dwelling. In addition, measures have to be put in place for effective monitoring. Oil activities, as well as the effluents from multinational companies within its environs, needs adequate monitoring, and the government should encourage the execution of housing scheme projects for the less privilege in order to reduce the radiological risks associated to radon exposure.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution Using Locust Bean Gum graft Copolymer-bentonite Composite

Sirajo Abubakar Zauro, Vishalakshi Badalamoole, Haruna Shehu Ahmed

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJOPACS/2018/43892

A graft copolymer gel composite made up of locust bean gum (LBG), diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC), 2-acrylamido-2- methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) and bentonite (BNT) was prepared using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker via microwave irradiation and characterised using FTIR, FESEM/EDS and XRD techniques. The graft ted copolymer composite was evaluated for its adsorption towards methylene blue (MB) dye. The LBG-g-poly (DADMAC-co-AMPS)/BNT showed a maximum adsorption of 70.89 mg/g compared to 65.09 mg/g showed by LBG-g-poly (DADMAC-co-AMPS). The adsorption data were subjected to two different isotherm models namely; Freundlich and Langmuir and were observed to be explained best by the Freundlich model. The adsorption of MB on the graft copolymer gel and the composite is observed to be a second-order kinetic process.