Open Access Short Research Article

Mineral and Proximate Composition of Soya Bean

Ogbemudia Ruth Etiosa, Nnadozie Blessing Chika, Anuge Benedicta

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJOPACS/2017/38530

Aims: The aim of the research was to analyse the minerals and proximate content of soya bean in order to explore its nutritional values in human and animal diets.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Edo Environmental Consults and Laboratory Limited (EECL), Benin–City and Delta State University, Abraka, between March, 2010 and January, 2011.

Methodology: The standard procedures were followed to analyse the proximate compositions and mineral concentrations of soya bean flour. The caloric value was calculated from crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, carbohydrate, moisture and ash content. The Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and cadmium (Cd) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), sodium ((Na) by Flame Spectrophotometer and phosphorus (P) by Spectrophotometer.

Results: The result revealed that soya bean contained 37.69% of protein, 28.20% of crude fat, 4.29% of ash, 8.07% of moisture, 5.44% of fibre, 16.31% of carbohydrate. The mineral determination showed that soya bean contained 300.36 mg/100 g of Calcium, 258.24 mg/100 g of Magnesium, 16.4 mg/100 g of Iron, 3.0 mg/100 g of Sodium, 2.7 mg/100 g of Zinc, 695.20 mg/      100 g of Phosphorus, 469.80 kCal/100 g while Cadmium was below detectable range.

Conclusion: This study concluded that the tested soya bean contained the highest amount of protein and lowest amount of ash. Similarly, among the minerals tested soya bean contained the highest amount of phosphorus and no cadmium at all. Considering the nutrient contents and proximate analysis of the sample, soya bean should be an inexpensive source of macronutrients that could be used in the management of protein-energy malnutrition and to improve the nutrition status of the vulnerable group of the population in developing countries. In developed countries, it could be used to improve the nutrition status of functional foods.


Open Access Short Research Article

Phytochemical Studies and GC-MS Analysis of Chloroform Extract of the Leaves of Aspilia africana

Ogbemudia Ruth Etiosa, Adeyemo John Akeem, Nwadozie Blessing Chika

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOPACS/2017/38663

Aim: The aim of this research was extraction, phytochemical studies and GCMS analysis of Aspilia africana.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the University of Benin, Benin-City and University of Lagos Central Research Laboratory, Nigeria from January 2016 to September 2016.

Methodology: 200 g of the pulverized plant sample was extracted with hexane, chloroform and methanol in this order for 8-12 hours. The extract was concentrated using a rotary evaporator to obtain the crude extract. The phytochemical test was carried out using standard methods. The GCMS was carried out using Agilent Technologies 7890A couple with Agilent Technologies 5975C VL MSD. The mobile phase is helium gas while the stationary phase was the column agilent technology HP5 MS with length 30m, internal diameter 0.320 mm and thickness 0.25 microns. The volume injected is 1 microlitre, oven initial temperature was 80°C to hold for 2 minutes. The mode was split less and scan range was 35-55.

Results: The phytochemicals of the leaves of Aspilia africana were extracted with chloroform by Soxhlet method and analysed using GC-MS. Ten constituents were identified constituting 92.714% hydrocarbon. Caryophyllene (29.43%), 2-Carene (19.76%) and Germacrene D (33.3%) were the major components of the extract. The phytochemical analysis was carried out by standard methods. The results revealed the presence of a number of therapeutically important phytochemicals such as alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and glycosides in the extract.

Conclusion: The results of the phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis indicate that the leaves of Aspilia africana are a rich source of a number of bioactive secondary metabolites which include alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoid, glycosides and terpenoids. This justifies the use of the plant in the traditional practices of herbal medicine, especially in the treatment of microbe-induced disease conditions.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of UV Irradiation on Structural Stability and Aggregation Behavior of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids

Li Rao, Weili Wei, Zhining Xia, Feng Li, Fengqing Yang, Kai Zhou

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJOPACS/2017/38484

Ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted great attention in both industry and academic researches. They usually exposed under ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation when they were used as solvents for photochemical reactions, additives of chromatographic separation medium with UV detection. However, the photostability of ILs still remained unexplored. Herein, the photostability of imidazolium IL was studied. We selected 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]) as the model because of its wide applications and remarkable properties. After UV irradiation, with maximal absorption between 250-350 nm was dramatically enhanced. To clarify the underling mechanism, nuclear magnetic resonance, UV-vis spectrum, fluorescence spectum, high performance liquid chromatography equipped diode array detector and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were intensively applied. The results showed that UV irradiation induced both chemical transformation and physical aggregation of the imidazolium cations. In addition, we found out that only protonated N-methylimidazolium underwent similar chemical transformation as imidazolium cations. This was indicative that all the imidazolium cation-based ILs were chemically and physically unstable under UV irradiation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Organic Compounds from Medicinal Plant (Mimusops elengi) and Their Chemical Analysis

Md. Shaharul Islam, Atiqur Rahman, Md. Helal Uddin

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOPACS/2017/38622

Medicinal plants are the rich source of unique phytochemicals which are frequently used in           the development of drugs against various diseases. Mimusops elengi (Bakul) is usually known        as medicinal plant for its various ayurvedic and therapeutic uses. In this study, the leaves of Mimusops elengi were extracted successively with petroleum ether (40-60), ethyl acetate             and methanol for chemical analysis. aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, hydrocarbon,              alkaloid, carbohydrates, phenol, instauration, steroid or terpenoid and ester test of ethyl acetate    and methanol extracts were done. Chemical analysis of ethyl acetate extract shows the presence    of aldehyde/ketone, carboxylic acid, hydrocarbon, alkaloid, phenol, unsaturation, steroid               and absence of ester and carbohydrates. On the other hand, chemical analysis of methanol      extract shows the presence of aldehyde/ketone, carboxylic acid, carbohydrates, alkaloid,         phenol, unsaturation, ester and absence of steroid and hydrocarbon. The above compounds  present in the leaves extract reveals Mimusops elengi is a natural source of biological                active ingredient.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Charge Transfer Method for the Determination of Thiamine Hydrochloride Using 2,3- dichloro-1,4-dicyano-5,6-benzoquinone

Gloria Nwanisobi, Pius Ukoha

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOPACS/2017/38336

Aims: The aim of this research is to determine a method based on the formation of charge transfer complex between thiamine and 2,3- dichloro-1,4-dicyano-5,6-benzoquinone (DDQ) that is simple, fast, economical and less laborious.

Objectives: To establish the degree of charge transfer complex formation between thiamine and DDQ, to determine the stability of the charge transfer (CT) complex with respect to time, temperature and pH. To apply the charge transfer complex in spectrophotometric determination of the drug, to determine the average recoveries of the drug in pure and commercial forms, to validate the proposed method using International Conference on Harmonization Guideline.

Study Design:  A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Madonna University Nigeria, Akpugo campus) Enugu state, Nigeria and Department of pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria between January 2013 and November 2015.

Methodology: Transfer serial volumes of 0.036, 0.04 …… to 0.32 ml in 0.004 step of the standard thiamine (0.001 g/ml) solution equivalent to 5 µg/ml-80 µg/ml to different test tubes. Added 0.2 ml of buffer 8 to each test tube. Finally, add calculated volumes of DDQ (0.001 g/ml) solution in methanol to the content, mix and allow standing for 25 min at 40°C before analysis at 474 nm against a methanol blank using an ultraviolet, visible spectrophotometer. Two thiamine hydrochloride tablets were grinded on a mortar. An amount equivalent to 0.01 g was weighed and dissolved in some methanol. It was stirred to extract the active ingredient, filtered with What man no. 1 filter paper and made up to 10 ml to give a theoretical 0.001 g/ml concentration. Similar volumes were transferred to different test tubes and prepared as described in the general procedure before analysis at 474 nm.

Results: A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the assay of thiamine. The method is based on charge transfer complexation reaction of thiamine as n-electron donor with 2, 3 dichloro-5,6-dicyano -1,4- benzoquinone (DDQ) as -acceptor to give highly coloured species with 1:1 stoichiometric ratio. The coloured product was quantified spectrometrically at 474nm under the optimized experimental conditions.  Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration ranges of 5-80μg/ml. Formation and stability of the complex of thiamine were optimum at pH 8. The Apparent molar absorptivity was calculated to be 1.08 x 103Lmol-1cm-1 with the corresponding Sandell sensitivity of 2.68. Limit of detection and quantification of the drug based on this method were thiamine 1.23 and 3.37 respectively.

Conclusion: The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of thiamine hydrochloride in pure and commercial forms with an average recovery of 96.2% and SD = 0.016. Statistical comparison of the results was performed using student’s t-test and f-test at P = .05 confidence level.