Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Radio Horizon Distance Using Measured Meteorological Parameters over Some Selected Locations in Nigeria

A. T. Adediji, S. O. Adebusola, J. S. Ojo

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajopacs/2019/v7i230089

In this study, results of the variation of maximum and minimum radio horizon distance derived from the computation of surface refractivity through measurement of temperature, relative humidity and pressureacrosssevenlocations((Akure (7.15°N, 5.12°E), Lagos (6.30°N, 3.20°E), Abuja (7.10°N, 9.25°E), Jos (9.50°N, 8.50°E), Makurdi (7.30°N,8.53°E), Port-Harcourt(4.20°N,7.00°E), and Nsukka (6.90°N,7.67°E)) in Nigeria are presented. Two years (Jan., 2011–Dec., 2012) archived data as provided by Tropospheric Data Acquisition Network (TRODAN) of the Centre for Atmospheric Research Anyigba, Kogi State were utilized for the study. Results showed that the values of surface refractivity (Ns) were low during the dry season months and high during the wet season months and also there was high value of NS at the coastal areas compared with the inland areas. It was also deduced that the mean value of NS for Abuja, Akure, Jos, Lagos, Markurdi, Nsukka and Port-Harcourt is 355, 362, 303, 391, 375, 361 and 399 N-units respectively. Results showed that the Radio Horizon Distance (RDH) values were generally low during the wet season months and high during the dry season months. The variability of radio horizon distance of transmitting antennas is higher in the Northern part of Nigeria than the southern part.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Heavy Metal Levels in Offal Meats (Kidney and Liver) of Beef Sold at Gwagwalada Market, Abuja, Nigeria

Adefarati Oloruntoba, Isaiah Adukwu Nathaniel

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajopacs/2019/v7i230090

Aims: To determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) in kidney and liver of slaughtered cattle.

Study Design:  Analytical method.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples obtained from Gwagwalada abattoir in Abuja, Nigeria and transported University of Abuja, Chemistry Laboratory for analysis. The study lasted for four (4) months.

Methodology: Wet digestion of samples followed by metal analysis using Accusys 211 Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS).

Results: The empirical results indicated that the mean levels or concentration of these heavy metals in kidney of cattle were 47.75±0.002 mg/g Zn, 279.5±0.084 mg/g Fe, 10.00±0.00mg/g Mn, while Cd and Pb were not detected. The levels or concentration of heavy metals in the liver sample were 0.500=±0.000025 mg/g Cd, 57.00±0.0001 mg/g Zn, 119.5±0.0016 mg/g Fe, 5.75±0.000025 mg/g Mn, Pb was not detected. The concentration of Fe and Mn were found to be high in kidney sample than the liver sample.

Conclusion: The evidence from this study revealed the safety of these investigated offal meats as the concentration of these metals in the kidney and liver sample were within the maximum permissible limit according to the European Commission (EC) and FAO/WHO standards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetic Approach to the Reduction of Ethylenediaminetetraacetatoferrate(III) Complex by Iodide Ion in Aqueous Acidic Medium

I. U. Nkole, C. R. Osunkwo

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajopacs/2019/v7i230091

The kinetic approach to the reduction of ethylenediaminetetraacetatoferrate(III) complex (hereafter [Fe(III)EDTA]-) by iodide ion has been studied spectrophotometrically in an aqueous acidic medium. The study was carried out under pseudo-first order conditions of an excess of iodide ion concentration at 28 ± 1, ionic strength (I) = 0.43 coulomb2 mol dm-3 (KNO3) and [H+] = 5.0  10-2 mol dm-3. The [Fe(III)EDTA]- complex was reduced according to the reaction;

2[Fe(III)EDTA]- + 2I-  → 2[Fe(II)EDTA]2- + I2

The rate law is - d[Fe(III)EDTA-]/dt = (a + b[H+])[Fe(III)EDTA-][I-]

The rate of the reaction is first order in oxidant and reductant concentrations, and displayed positive Brønsted-Debye salt effect. On the basis of catalysis by added cation, Michaelis-Menten plots and the absence of intermediates, the outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism is proposed for the reaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Properties of a New (Polymer and Chalcone)

Mohana Faroug Attia

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajopacs/2019/v7i230092

This paper included two objectives: (i) Synthesis of Polymer {poly 2- [1- phenyl -3-(4-methyl phenyl)-4, 5-dihydropyrazole-5-yl-(4-phenoxy carbonyl)] styrene} PMDPCS and structure characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR spectra and Uv/Vis and XRD. (ii) Synthesis of chalcone {3-(4-(dimethylamino) phenyl)-2-phenyl-(2E) propen-1-one} (DAPPP) for absorption and fluorescence spectra under different solvents and concentrations.  Also, under various concentrations, organic solvents and pump pulse energies of Nd: YAG laser, the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) was studied. Additionally, under the same identical conditions, the amplified spontaneous emission spectra of DAPPP in solution were compared with a conventional laser dye of coumarin 503. Finally, the gain and the fluorescence quantum yield of DAPPP were determined.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of GIS in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality in the Yenagoa Watershed of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Oboshenure Kingsley Karo, Francis Emeka Egobueze, Davidson E. Egirani

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajopacs/2019/v7i230093

The spatial variations in groundwater quality in parts of the Yenagoa watershed (YWS) in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has been investigated using Geographic Information System (GIS). An understanding of the factors responsible for groundwater vulnerability could facilitate the use of geographic information system in the control and management of groundwater quality. This study is due to the fact that the spatial distribution maps of groundwater quality in the YWS obtained by GIS modeling are not documented. The quality of groundwater accounts for the environmental and human health status of the residents in the YWS. Therefore, twenty (20) water samples obtained from shallow boreholes were analyzed for physicochemical properties. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, sulphate, nitrate, sodium, chloride, magnesium, total hardness and iron contents were measured using standard laboratory procedure. Except for the iron content, the results obtained from the physicochemical analyses were within limits of the World Health Organization Standards for drinking water. These results were transformed into spatial distribution maps using GIS modeling and interpretation. The Index Overlay method and Inverse Distance weighted method form component parts of the GIS modeling used in the generation of the spatial distribution maps for each physicochemical parameter. These modeled results were related to the World Health Organization (WHO) Standard for drinking water. The maps generated from GIS modeling indicated zones that were suitable for groundwater extraction as opposed to zones unsuitable for groundwater extraction. In conclusion, 55% of the boreholes in the Yenagoa watershed were affected by high iron content.