Open Access Short Research Article

Extraction of Ethanol from Nypa fruticans (Nipa) Palm Fruit

Karina Milagros R. Cui- Lim, Judy Ann H. Brensis, Flyndon Mark S. Dagalea, Marlon John M. Bangco, Maria Rosabel Castillo, Hannah G. Pulga, Mark Gil M. Cruz, Jaymar L. Erivera, Feraldine M. Chiquito, Tom Jericho L. Abobo, Mary Jane Madario, Cherry I. Ultra

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 41-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajopacs/2020/v8i430125

Northern Samar is abundant when it comes to nipa resource which has a big potential as a raw material for ethanol. Utilization of nipa in Northern Samar is not optimal due to low interest and ability to process into useful products. The main aim of the study is to extract ethanol from nipa fruit to control the shortage of ethyl alcohol in the province. Fermentation was carried out after collection, washing, and cutting of nipa fruit through mixing 15 g of baker’s yeast to convert the sugar into alcohol for 12 days. Then, the distillation process followed to remove the excess water from the alcohol. Lastly, purification was done by adding lime (Calcium oxide) into the distillate in order to obtain ethanol. Result showed that the presence of ethanol was not observed after the 24 hours of fermentation since nipa fruit takes longer time to yield concentrated ethanol. But after 72 hours after fermentation it showed positive result from Iodoform test, Ester test, Litmus test, and Flammability test. It was concluded that nipa palm fruit could be a viable source of ethanol as compared to other plant-producing ethanol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reaction Kinetics of Iron Oxides in Ok Tedi Magnetite Skarn Ore

Mary Kama, Kaul Gena, Tindi Seje Nuru

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajopacs/2020/v8i430121

Magnetic skarn ore (MSO) is one of the major copper bearing ore extracted by the Ok Tedi Copper Mine in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Copper minerals are recovered by flotation while the iron not associated with copper are discarded as tailings. The objective of this investigation was to determine the iron ore reduction kinetics for the Ok Tedi MSO and ascertain if it can be processed to produce sponge iron for a mini steel plant in Papua New Guinea. SEM-EDAX analyses of the Ok Tedi MSO indicated 10.1% C, 30% O, 0.6% Mg, 1.1% Si, 21.1% S, 0.8% Ca and 36.2 % Fe. Most of the iron is in sulfide form. Both naturally occurring and roasted sinters of Ok Tedi MSO samples of different particle sizes were reduced by charcoal carbon at three different temperatures and seven different reduction times. Analyses of the reduced products indicated a metallic iron content of more than 65 wt. % on average. Results showed that there was no significant difference in reduction between fluxed and control materials. Only a slight increase in kinetics with reduced particle size, hence the reaction rate constant (K) did not vary much within the temperatures investigated. Reaction kinetics increases with increasing reduction time at 900°C. Therefore, more iron reduction is observed with particles of 106 µm size. In addition, the results also confirmed that the reduction energy used was higher at 800°C and lower at 1000°C. In conclusion, iron reduction can be improved but close monitoring of temperature and reduction times are essential to determine the reaction kinetics of the Ok Tedi MSO.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution and Variation of Potassium in Black Soil at Different Stages of Crop Growth in Maize (Zea mays)

R. Gnanasundari, K. M. Sellamuthu, P. Malathi

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajopacs/2020/v8i430122

Potassium (K) is the third most important major plant nutrient with numerous functions. The availability of K depends on concentration relative to that of Ca2+ and Mg2+ than on the total quantity of K present. The level of extraction of K by different extractants followed the order: boiling HNO3 (1 M) > Non- exchangeable K > Exchangeable K > Water soluble K. The amount of K extracted by different extractants was more in non- calcareous soil followed by calcareous soil. To know the K availability in both the soils, a pot culture experiment was conducted with the two soils (i.e., calcareous and non-calcareous) to know the response of maize to K application. Results showed that a significant higher value of available K in calcareous soil under potassium @ 120 kg K2O ha-1 treatment followed by 80 kg K2O ha-1 in non-calcareous soil irrespective of critical growth stages of hybrid maize. Among the K fractions, water soluble K was the least in magnitude and lattice K was found to be dominant one. Application of 120 kg K2O ha-1 recorded the highest potassium in all the K fractions (water soluble K, exchangeable K and nitric acid soluble K) in all stages of crop growth in calcareous soil whereas in non-calcareous soil 80 kg K2O ha-1 recorded high in all the fractions and the results emphasizing the importance of potassium in soil. Grain and straw yield of hybrid maize were significantly higher under 120 kg K2O ha-1in calcareous soil and 80 kg K2O ha-1 in non- calcareous soil which is well evidenced by a yield increase of 37.7 % over control. A significant and positive correlation was existing between all fractions of potassium viz., HNO3 soluble K, non- exchangeable K, exchangeable K, water soluble K and available K with grain and stover yield in calcareous soil and non- calcareous soil. It was found that calcareous soil showed comparatively better response to the application of potassium especially in water soluble K with an R2 value of 0.917** followed by HNO3 soluble K with a R2 value of 0.895**. Therefore, the present investigation stresses the vital importance of inclusion of higher dose of potassium in calcareous soil for maintaining soil K dynamics and enhancing yield of hybrid maize so as to sustain soil productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stabilizing Ag Nanoparticles Using Anatase TiO2 and Cu on Al Surface

Masayoshi Kaneko

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajopacs/2020/v8i430123

Chemical adsorption of anatase TiO2, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), and Cu particles (Cu Ps) on aluminum (Al) surface yielded an active surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. TiO2 is known to reduce both silver (Ag) and copper (Cu). In an oxidizing environment, Ag NPs remain unoxidized since Cu has a more negative redox potential than Ag. Ag is therefore protected by Cu from getting oxidized. Although Ag NPs exhibit better SERS activity than Au NPs, Ag is relatively easier to oxidize, limiting the development of Ag-based nanomaterials. Therefore, despite the poor SERS activity of Au nanoparticles than that of Ag nanoparticles, Au nanoparticles have been widely used. Herein, the stabilization of Ag nanoparticles by incorporating a reductive process using anatase TiO2 is reported. The fabricated substrates bearing anatase, Ag NPs, and Cu Ps were stable, as seen by Raman spectra, and remained unchanged for more than 2 months.

Open Access Original Research Article

Polymerization of Ethylene in the Presence of Various Ligand Organometallic Catalytic Systems

Qanbarli Zeynab, Khanmetov Akber, Azizbeyli Hemide, Khamiyev Matlab

Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajopacs/2020/v8i430124

This work presents the results on the preparation of new readily available zirconium-containing arylimine complex catalytic systems and their application together with metallocenes in ethylene polymerization. For this purpose, zirconium complexes with grafted ionic liquid type ligands were synthesized and tested in the ethylene polymerization process. On the other hand, it is known that one of the main industrial catalysts for the polymerization process of ethylene is dicycopentadienyl titanium and zirconium dichloride. Therefore, one of the main objectives of the work is to test the using of the newly synthesized complexes with the industrial Cp2TiCl2 catalyst. The products obtained were identified by various physicochemical methods and it was found that these catalytic systems allow one to control the structure and composition of the products obtained.